Java - Operators

OperatorĀ in java is a symbol that is used to perform operations. Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups:
  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Relational Operators
  3. Bitwise Operators
  4. Logical Operators
  5. Assignment Operators
  6. Misc Operators

1. The Arithmetic Operators :

Arithmetic operators are used in mathematical expressions in the same way that they are used in algebra.

Assume integer variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:
SNOOperator and Example
1+ ( Addition )
Example: A + B will give 30
2- ( Subtraction )
Example: A - B will give -10
3* ( Multiplication )
Example: A * B will give 200
4/ (Division)
Example: B / A will give 2
5% (Modulus)
Example: B % A will give 0
6++ (Increment)
Example: B++ gives 21
7-- ( Decrement )
Example: B-- gives 19

2. The Relational Operators :

Assume integer variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:
SNOOperator and Example
1== (equal to)
Example: (A == B) is not true.
2!= (not equal to)
Example: (A != B) is true.
3> (greater than)
Example: (A > B) is not true.
4< (less than)
Example: (A < B) is true.
5>= (greater than or equal to)
Example: (A >= B) is not true.
6<= (less than or equal to)
Example: (A <= B) is true.

3. The Bitwise Operators:

Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit-by-bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; now in binary format they will be as follows:
a = 0011 1100
b = 0000 1101
-----------------

a&b = 0000 1100
a|b = 0011 1101
a^b = 0011 0001
~a = 1100 0011
Assume integer variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then:
SNOOperator and Example
1& (bitwise and)
Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.
Example: (A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100
2| (bitwise or)
Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand.
Example: (A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101
3^ (bitwise XOR)
Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.
Example: (A ^ B) will give 49 which is 0011 0001
4~ (bitwise compliment)
Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of flipping bits.
Example: (~A ) will give -61 which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number.
5<< (left shift)
Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand
Example: A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000
6>> (right shift)
Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.
Example: A >> 2 will give 15 which is 1111
7>>> (zero fill right shift)
Shift right zero fill operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand and shifted values are filled up with zeros.
Example: A >>>2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111

4. The Logical Operators:

Assume Boolean variables A holds true and variable B holds false, then:
SNOOperator and Example
1&& (logical and)
Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true.
Example: (A && B) is false.
2|| (logical or)
Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true.
Example: (A || B) is true.
3! (logical not)
Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.
Example: !(A && B) is true.

5. The Assignment Operators:

SNOOperator and Example
1=
Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand.
Example: C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C
2+=
Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand.
Example: C += A is equivalent to C = C + A
3-=
Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand.
Example: C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
4*=
Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand.
Example: C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
5/=
Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand.
Example: C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
6%=
Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand.
Example: C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
7<<=
Left shift AND assignment operator.
Example: C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
8>>=
Right shift AND assignment operator
Example: C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
9&=
Bitwise AND assignment operator.
Example: C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
10^=
bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator.
Example: C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
11|=
bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator.
Example: C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2

6. Miscellaneous Operators

Conditional Operator ( ? : ) : Conditional operator is also known as the ternary operator. This operator consists of three operands and is used to evaluate Boolean expressions. The goal of the operator is to decide which value should be assigned to the variable.
The operator is written as:-
variable x = (expression) ? value if true : value if false
							  
public class Test {

   public static void main(String args[]){
      int a, b;
      a = 10;
      b = (a == 1) ? 20: 30;
      System.out.println( "Value of b is : " +  b );

      b = (a == 10) ? 20: 30;
      System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b );
   }
}

This would produce the following result :
Value of b is : 30
Value of b is : 20
instance of Operator: This operator is used only for object reference variables. The operator checks whether the object is of a particular type (class type or interface type). instanceof operator is written as:
( Object reference variable ) instanceof (class/interface type)

public class Test {

   public static void main(String args[]){
      String name = "James";
      // following will return true since name is type of String
      boolean result = name instanceof String;  
      System.out.println( result );
   }
}

This would produce the following result:
true

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